Emco Maximat V10P with screwcutting gearbox, power cross feed and early 4-speed milling head. Although these heads are shown in the maker's literature canted over to run on their side it is wise to ensure that, if they are tilted over so far, they are not overfilled with oil. If they are the simple oil thrower will not stop lubricant leaking into the electric motor.
Shared between the models, the headstock appears to have been internally identical, with an arrangement such that the drive was always taken through a pair of gears where one in metal engaged with another whose steel hub carried laminated "fibre" teeth. Combined with lubrication by oil-splash this combination gave unusually quiet running - and a reputation for reliability. However, none of the assemblies can take foolish handling, and trying to move the selector levers before the shafts have completely stopped leads to the main-spindle fibre gear being eaten away on one side and the eventual failure of the two lightly-constructed alloy selector forks - and it is not unknown for these to also fail with age and fatigue. Hence, it's a good idea (and especially before buying one of these lathes) to remove the four screws securing the headstock cover plate and take a good look inside. Cracks in the selectors are hard to see, but a magnifying glass will often reveal them. If the a fork does break, and drop into the headstock, it will wreck two or more pairs of gears. New forks, in bronze, are available - though as they are made in batches might not always be in stock (email for details).
Hardened and ground with a 20 mm bore and 3-Morse taper (though some early 7s have been found with a No. 2 Morse) the headstock spindle accepted L20 collets and ran in precision roller bearings. Early V10 machines had a threaded nose to M39 x 4 mm (described in the literature as "EM 39 DIN 800") though it is possible that the 1.5" x 8 t.p.i. thread from the earlier 3000 series was used as well. On the V10P power cross-feed model both metric and Imperial spindles were fitted: the former being Part. No. B2B-030-160 with a metric thread (M39 x 4) and the former Part No. B2B-030-160 (1.5" x 8 t.p.i.).
On later screwed spindles the chucks supplied were fitted with a safety clamping ring - to reduce the likelihood of fittings coming unscrewed in reverse - whilst late-model examples of the V10P were given an inconvenient (but safe when running backwards) three-stud nose. This latter arrangement meant having to remove and replace three nuts every time a spindle fitting was changing. For accuracy, the nose assembly relied upon a short taper in the back of each fitting - faceplate, backplate or collet unit - making complete contact against the end of the spindle. Unfortunately it not unknown for third-party components (usually of Chinese or Indian origin), to be machined so that they do not fully engage against the taper and, if a 3-jaw chuck proves to be inaccurate, it may well pay to investigate the backplate seating. All parts of the spindle nose should be kept scrupulously clean, for even the smallest piece of trapped swarf will cause the chuck to be tilted over and possible damage the seating and spindle end.
On all versions of the lathe the cross slide was heavily constructed and provided with three T slots, running laterally (at 90º to the bed's ways). The construction of the top slide was a little unusual: its base casting was formed with a circular boss that retained a loose ring that clamped the slide down by means of 2 T-bolts sitting in the cross-slide T slots. The design not only allowed the slide to rotate through 360 degrees but also to be positioned quickly either forwards or backwards as need dictated. Rather small zeroing micrometer dials were fitted, and it is suspected that single 2.5 mm pitch (10 t.p.i.) cross feed screw (of ordinary V not Acme form) was used for both English and metric versions, only the dials being appropriately engraved. On the V10 the cross-feed screw ran through a threaded bush held captive in the saddle casting by a spring dowel-pin; for the power cross feed V10P this crude arrangement was dropped (the nut was very difficult to replace), and the feed-nut fastened to the underside of the cross slide with clearance provided by a central slot cast in a new and wider saddle. At the same time the opportunity was taken on the V10P to redesign the cross-feed screw end bracket and incorporate a pair of ball bearings to give better support and provided a better thrust arrangement for the feed screw.
A 0.25 h.p. 4-speed, 350, 640, 780 and 1450 r.p.m. milling head (later replaced with a six speed), proved to be a popular, if expensive, fitting and was lifted straight from the contemporary Emco bench milling machine. The head's mounting column was held in a simple cast-iron bracket bolted to the back of the bed by four set-screws and arranged so that it rested on the bench exactly level with the bed feet. Electrical control of the head was integrated into that used for the lathe, with the necessary switchgear built as standard into every machine to allow easy retrofitting. The head had a 40 mm stroke quill, carried a No. 2 Morse taper, and offered 305 mm of clearance between spindle nose and table and some 145 mm of throat.
Fitted with 30 mm diameter barrel with 80 mm of travel and a proper two-part compression lock, the set-over tailstock was of conventional design and enjoyed the benefit of a standard-fit micrometer collar. Unfortunately, instead of a neat cam-lock lever arrangement, it was clamped in place by the action of a self-hiding spanner on an ordinary nut.
Machines can be roughly dated from their colour with early V10s finished in a blue "Hammerite" paint and later models given a more pleasing shade of "European-standard" machine-tool green; blue machines can be found with either the 4-speed or 6-speed head but the green lathes were fitted with just the 6-speed head. The 7 and 8 models were usually in a hammered-green or blue finish, with no change of shade or colour to indicate the age.
Last to be made of the 10 Series lathes, the "Compact 10" was a quite different machine; it had little in common with the earlier models and included several cost-saving features. The headstock was V-belt driven from an over-hung pulley, screwcutting was by changewheels only (no gearbox was offered) with the power shaft and associated cross feed arrangements removed. This easily-handled (though expensive lathe) appears to have been finished only in a gloss "machine-tool" green.
One point to consider on all Emco lathes of this era is the small frame size of the electric motors and their tendency to run very hot. However, being of modern design, they should, in theory, be no more unreliable than older types of more generous proportions, but with less effective insulation - however, one has to say, their reputation in this respect is not good and direct replacements appear unavailable.
A wide range of (expensive) extras was available for the V10 and V10P including steadies, collets, rotary tables and a neat toolpost grinder that used the special high-speed collet-holding headstock spindle assembly supplied as an option for the Unimat SL1000