email: tony@lathes.co.uk
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Russian "Stankoimport"
Universal Precision Milling Machine

Type 676Π 
An Operation & Maintenance Manual is available for this machine
"Stankoimport" Type 676Π Continued here (Page 2 of 2)



Built during the 1960s and 1970s, the Russian-manufactured Type 676Π Universal Precision Milling Machine was intended for one-off and small batch production work (the Π was pronounced "P", as in pet). Designed using features borrowed from the established, classic models made by Deckel, Maho and Thiel, etc, it appears to have been a developed copy of the Polish Fabryka Obrabiarek Precyzyinych Model FNC25 (also branded as the "Polamco" and "Avia") ) as well as bearing some similarity in the layout of its head assembly to the Czechoslovakian-built TOS FN40 and FN32.
Like all of its type* it mounted, on top of the main column, a sliding housing containing a horizontal spindle. To the end of this, or above it, could be fitted a variety of attachments including a horizontal, cutter-holding arbor (supported by an overarm and drop bracket), together with a variety of vertical milling, slotting and special-purpose heads. With a vertical, T-slotted knee, the front of the machine was intended to accept a plain, non-tilting table and one that could be tilted left to right as well as angled front to back and swivelled. Although the range of accessories did not match the wide range offered by other makers of similar models - there being, for example, no specialised milling attachment for intricate corner work or an independently-powered, high-speed head with fine down-feed - this was a substantially constructed (940 kg) precision miller that was offered at a price many thousands of pounds below that of Western manufactures.
Bolted to a separate foot that held the coolant tank and its 0.125 kW pump, the main column was formed as a box-shaped, cast-iron structure reinforced internally with longitudinal and cross ribs. A single 2.2 kW (3 h.p.) motor was mounted on an adjustable plate in the base of the column and served to drive both the main spindle and table-feed gearboxes. 16 spindle speeds were available that ran from 50 to 1630 r.p.m. horizontally and 60 to 2040 r.p.m. when driving the vertical attachment. Driven from the motor via V-belts, the spindle speed-change gearbox was a self-contained unit, demountable in one section for maintenance or repair, and flange mounted to the left-hand wall of the main column. Gears and shafts were hardened and ground, with the use of ball and roller races throughout and positive lubrication by a piston pump driven by an eccentric connected to the first shaft of the feeds' gearbox. Controls were mounted towards the top of the column's right-hand face and were utterly simple in operation, consisting of a single engagement lever and a rotating dial - the latter having to be released by lifting a lever before it could be turned - by which means the speed required was selected.
Continued below:

Continued:
Driven from the first shaft of the spindle-speed gearbox and mounted immediately below it, the table-feed gearbox was also built as one, easy-to-remove unit, with hardened and ground gears and shafts turning in ball and roller races - the box sharing the output of the single oil pump. 16 rates of fine feed were available, vertically and horizontally on the knee and in and out on the head, from 13 to 395 mm per minute and rapids on all axes at the same rate of 935 mm per minute. Control was identical to the spindle gearbox, with dial-type rate selection and a single lever to engage and disengage the drive - a separate lever, positioned just above dial for rate selection, was used to engage the rapids.
Made as part of the knee, the 250 mm deep and 630 mm wide vertical table had 3 horizontal T-slots (each 14 mm wide and set on a spacing of 50 mm) with a longitudinal travel of 400 mm and vertically of 380 mm. Both safety limit and intermediate adjustable knock-off stops were fitted to table and head travels, as were finely-engraved rulers in mm divisions, holders for D.T.I.s reading down to 0.01 mm and precision, micrometer-drum-equipped length rods and Johanson slip gauges. Handwheels were sector-weighted for a flywheel effect and equipped with satin-chrome micrometer dials of a good diameter - some examples of the machine being found with dual inch/metric calibrations. Lubrication of the feed screws was provided by a hand-cranked rotary pump, mounted low down on the left-hand side of the knee, with oil distributed through a network of copper pipes. Each slideway had a gib strip of the of the tapered type, with fine adjustment by a setting ring turned by a pin spanner.
Supplied as part of the standard equipment, and able to be bolted to the vertical, was a 250 x 800 mm
Horizontal Rectangular Table with five 14 mm T-slots set on 50 mm centres. However, in order to get the most from the miller, a required accessory was the 200 x 630 mm Universal Angular Table. This could be tilted in the horizontal plane by 20° each side of vertical, by 45° in the same manner vertically and swivelled by 30° each side of parallel with the machine's front face. 
Machined as a slideway, the top of the main column carried a separate casting, able to be moved my hand or under power, that housed a horizontal, No. 4 Morse spindle running in a double-row roller bearing at the front, a ball bearing at the rear and with a ball-thrust bearing to take axial loads. To solve the problem of how to drive the spindle when its housing was moved in and out (and so provide a lateral travel to the cutter), the final gear in the speed-change box was enormously long and engaged a narrow gear fitted to the horizontal spindle. The top of the sliding housing was machined to take a dovetail overarm to which could be clamped the usual type of drop bracket to support the outer end of a horizontal milling arbor.
Continued below:

Continued:
Instead of being mounted on top of the sliding housing - as on the traditional Deckel, Maho and Thieltypes - the
Vertical Head (able to be swivelled through 90° each side of vertical) was bolted to its front face and took its drive from the horizontal spindle through a pair of bevel gears arranged to give a useful increase in speeds with a range from 60 to 2040 r.p.m. Mounted in a double-row ball bearing at its lower end, the vertical spindle was support in a ball race at the outer with thrust taken by a ball thrust bearing. Fitted into a quill, the No. 4 Morse spindle had a quick-action feed only, of 60 mm, under the control of a lever - the addition of a fine-feed handwheel, working through the usual worm-and-wheel gearing, would have been a considerable improvement.
Available at extra cost was a speed multiplier unit - misleading listed by the makers as a
High-speed Vertical Head. Fastened into the spindle of the vertical head, the unit gave 16 speeds from 165 to 5300 r.p.m. and had a collet fitting designed to take cutters from 3 to 10 mm in diameter.
Slotting was catered for by the standard
Slotting Head, a unit able to be inclined 90° each side of vertical and with a maximum tool travel of 80 mm in 4 rates of double stroke that varied from 50 to 100 per minute.
Supplied with each Type 676Π was a complete set of electrical equipment on 3-phase, ready-to-run and with a machine light; coolant equipment; a horizontal milling table; collet chuck with nine collets; three milling arbors with diameters of 16, 22 and 27 mm with sets of spacing rings; one blank "test" arbor"; a swivel-base machine vice with 140 mm wide jaws; a maximum opening span of 120 mm; six Morse taper adaptor sleeves; two screwdrivers, twelve hexagon and "C" spanners; a 42 mm dial test indicator; four table clamping strips, an oil gun and an operator's handbook.
Of unusually rigid design with a dovetail overarm, the dividing head was designed to hold a workpiece directly in the spindle with the aid of a drawbar, between centres or in a 3-jaw chuck. It was fitted with a simple plunger-index wheel with 24 holes for direct dividing, a set of dividing plates for indirect indexing (used in conjunction with the usual worm-and-wheel gearing) and a quadrant-mounted set of changewheels to allow for complex dividing and the generation of spirals - the latter requiring the drive to be coupled to the table feed-screw. With its head able to be swivelled through 360° on the mounting plate, the unit could be fitted on any of the tables - vertical, horizontal or swivelling.

*Proof of the type's success - the genus Precision Universal Milling Machine - is evident from the number of similar machines made in various countries including:
Austria:
Emco Model F3
BelgiumS.A.B.C.A. Model JRC-2
CzechoslovakiaTOS FN Models
England: Alexander "Master Toolmaker" and the Ajax "00", an import of uncertain origin.
Germany: Hahn & Kolb with their pre-WW2 Variomat model
Wilhelm Grupp Universal- Fräsmaschine Type UF 20 N/120
Hermle Models UWF-700 and UWF-700-PH
Leinen Super Precision Micro Mill
Macmon Models M-100 & M-200 (though these were actually manufactured by Prvomajska); Maho (many models over several decades)
Ruhla
Rumag Models RW-416 and RW-416-VG
SHW (Schwabische Huttenwerke) Models UF1, UF2 and UF3
Thiel Models 58, 158 and 159
Wemas Type WMS
Italy: C.B.Ferrari Models M1R & M2R
Bandini Model FA-1/CB and badged as Fragola (agents, who also sold a version of the Spanish Meteba).
Japan: Riken Models RTM2 and RTM3
Poland: "Avia" and "Polamco" Models FNC25, FND-25 and FND-32 by Fabryka Obrabiarek Precyzyinych
Russia: "Stankoimport 676"
Spain: Metba Models MB-0, MB-1, MB-2, MB-3 and MB-4
Switzerland: Aciera Models F1, F2, F3, F4 and F5
Christen and Perrin Types U-O and U-1 (Perrin Frères SA, Moutier)
Hispano-Suiza S.A. Model HSS-143
Luthy
Mikron Models WF2/3S, WF3S, WF-3-DCM & WF-2/3-DCM
Perrin Type U-1
Schaublin Model 13 and Model 22
The former Yugoslavia: Prvomajska (in Zagreb with Models ALG-100 and ALG200)
Sinn Models MS2D & MS4D
"Comet" Model X8130, imported to the UK in the 1970s by TI Comet.
United States: Brown & Sharpe "Omniversal"
Sloane & Chace in the USA produced a miniature bench version and at least five Chinese-built models have also been made, including one from the Beijing Instrument Machine Tool Works. A number of the "clones" merely followed the general Thiel/Maho/Deckel concept whilst others, like Bandini and Christen, borrowed heavily from Deckel and even had parts that were interchangeable. Should you come across any of these makes and models all will provide "The Deckel Experience" - though you must bear in mind that spares are unlikely to be available and, being complex, finely-made mechanisms, they can be difficult and expensive to repair..


Upper overarm retracted and the vertical head in place

Overarm being used to support a horizontal milling arbor

Spindle speed-change gearbox: driven from the motor via V-belts this was a self-contained unit, demountable in one section for maintenance or repair, and flange mounted to the left-hand wall of the main column.

Table-feed gearbox: driven from the first shaft of the spindle-speed gearbox and mounted immediately below it, this was also built as one, easy-to-remove unit, with hardened and ground gears and shafts turning in ball and roller races

In order to get the most from the miller, a required accessory was the 200 x 630 mm Universal Angular Table. This could be tilted in the horizontal plane by 20° each side of vertical, by 45° in the same manner vertically and swivelled by 30° each side of parallel with the machine's front face. 

Supplied as part of the standard equipment, and able to be bolted to the vertical, was a 250 x 800 mm Horizontal Rectangular Table with five 14 mm T-slots set on 50 mm centres

Maker's rotary table with dividing plate

Slotting Head: a unit able to be inclined 90° each side of vertical and with a maximum tool travel of 80 mm in 4 rates of double stroke that varied from 50 to 100 per minute.

Of unusually rigid design, with a dovetail overarm, the dividing head was designed to hold a workpiece directly in the spindle with the aid of a drawbar, between centres or in a 3-jaw chuck. It was fitted with a simple plunger-index wheel with 24 holes for direct dividing, a set of dividing plates for indirect indexing (used in conjunction with the usual worm-and-wheel gearing) and a quadrant-mounted set of changewheels to allow for complex dividing and the generation of spirals - the latter requiring the drive to be coupled to the table feed-screw. With its head able to be swivelled through 360° on the mounting plate, the unit could be fitted on any of the tables - vertical, horizontal or swivelling.

Speed multiplier unit - misleading listed by the makers as a High-speed Vertical Head. Fastened into the spindle of the vertical head, the unit gave 16 speeds from 165 to 5300 r.p.m. and had a collet fitting designed to take cutters from 3 to 10 mm in diameter.

Accessories supplied with each new machine



"Stankoimport" Type 676Π Continued here (Page 2 of 2)

An Operation & Maintenance Manual is available for this machine

Russian "Stankoimport"
Universal Precision Milling Machine

Type 676Π 
email: tony@lathes.co.uk
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