E-Mail Tony@lathes.co.uk 
Home    Machine Tool Archive    Machine Tools For Sale & Wanted
Machine Tool Manuals   Machine Tool Catalogues   Belts   Accessories   Books


F.Lorch, Lorch Schmidt, L.S. & Co. Lathes

Lorch Home Page   Schmidt Page 2   Precision Plain Lathe 1920s/30s   
Precision Plain-turning & Bench Lathes

   
More information about Lorch Lathes is contained in various Manuals,
Parts Lists and well-illustrated Sales & Technical Specification
Brochures and can be purchased on-line here



Trading under the names "F.Lorch", "L.S.& Co." and "Lorch, Schmidt & Co." Lorch was a German company renowned for its wide range of precision lathes and other high-quality watch-making machines and tools.  What the marketing philosophies were with regard to the three different "brands" is not known with seemingly identical lathes being badged simultaneously with different labels - though after WW2 the "Lorch, Schmidt & Co." label was abandoned. Over the years each of the three names was given to many different types of machine - from tiny watchmaker lathes through small and medium-sized plain-turning bench lathes (not dissimilar to the American Stark and similar makes) to backgeared and screwcutting models. The latter type, with centre heights from 4 to 6 inches (100 to 150 mm) were often listed in catalogues under the Lorch Schmidt heading. Although the larger lathes evolved steadily to follow other makers - more massive castings, heavier headstocks and the ability to taker deeper yet more accurate cuts - the smaller lathes had almost finished their development by 1910. A comparison with Lorch lathes made in the first decade of the 20th century with those produced in the early 1950s will show surprisingly few changes: apart from some cleaning up of details, larger micrometer dials,  built-on countershaft units and integrated electrical switch gear there was simply no need to alter them, so well had the originals been designed and constructed. Unfortunately, the result has been a bewildering variety of types and sizes  - sometimes designated only by the particular type or size of the compound slide rest, or headstock - or combination of such feature. It was also possible for customers to specify their own particular requirements of collet capacity, lever or screw-feed slide rests, screw, lever or capstan-driven tailstock barrels, thread-cutting or thread-chasing equipment, etc., and so create a unique machine for their particular purposes. With such a plethora of models to choose from identifying a Lorch model without access to a wide range of reference resources is difficult and, just to confuse matters further, the factory almost never fitted Type or Model name plates or tags.
Although comparatively rare in the UK - these were very expensive machines when new and usually confined to professional users in experimental and similar workshops - they are relatively common in continental Europe and greatly sought-after machines, not only for their inherent mechanical beauty but also because, even today, their superior design and quality of construction makes them so useful.
Featured in the first of the illustrations below is a backgeared and screwcutting 5" x 24" Lorch Schmidt Model C11 - a design with its origins in the mid 1890s and made, almost unchanged in its major components, into the 1930s. While early versions of the lathe (and some examples of a contemporary but smaller 4-inch centre height version), had the headstock spindle end thrust taken against a solid plate (supported outboard by two studs), later types (from around 1895) had the plate open (to allow a hollow spindle) and then, with the thrust taken on a ball race against the inside face of the left-hand headstock bearing (which could have been as late as the 1920s), a completely open spindle - in the manner of a modern machine.
Like many lathes of its era the front face of the headstock bull wheel was drilled with a ring of holes for dividing purposes but, unusually, both headstock back gears were guarded - in this case with unusually narrow, intricately-cast cast-iron guards.
Lorch were a conservative company, and many of their lathes changed little over the years with even the overly-ornate, Victorian-era stands still found on lathes built in the first two decades of the 20th century. Should you have a lathe branded "Lorch Schmidt" of any age, or any sales literature for the maker, the writer would be pleased to hear from you.
An example of a restored Lorch Schmidt Type AB backgeared and screwcutting lathe on its treadle stand can be seen here.

Lorch C11 as sold during the 1930s

A fabulous Lorch Schmidt 6-inch precision lathe Model C11-No. 1 from circa 1910 (production dates approximately 1905 to 1935). Both power sliding and surfacing were fitted, driven from a separate shaft coupled to a 3-step flat-belt drive from the headstock spindle. 9 rates of sliding feed were available from 0.007 mm to 0.5 mm per revolution of the spindle. For very coarse pitches, or spirals, the shaft could also be driven from the changewheels. For its time the 3 V-way bed was unusually wide and deep; it could be supplied straight as the "Lathe No. 1" (410 kg) without a gap and admitting 40 inches (600 mm) between centres or as the "Lathe No. 2" (510 kg) in which a rather shallow 3-inch (75 mm) deep gap was fitted and the between-centres capacity increased to 40 inches (1000 mm). In 1910 the lathe cost 171 : 5S : 0d as a straight-bed model and 178 : 2S : 0d with a gap - equal to about 12,485 in 2007.
This Lorch Schmidt has some similarities with the more advanced Hardinge toolroom lathe as made from around 1914.

No guards on the changewheels - as was common at the time - but fitted to the backgears. The tumble reverse mechanism was contained inboard of the left-hand headstock bearing where it was better supported. A further benefit of this arrangement was, with just a single gear protruding from the mechanism, the closeness of the changewheel bracket to its (elegantly-shaped) support bracket. The small 3-step pulley on the end of the headstock spindle was to allow the option of a belt drive to the leadscrew.

Another contemporary signature for German precision lathes was the use, in the larger sizes, of spoked changewheels. Lorch Schmidt lathes, like all precision types of the time, were well equipped with a set of between 22 and 26 gears

Bottom section of the belt-driven extra-fine feed and power-shaft drive gearing

Like many precision lathes at the time the elegantly shaped plain-bearing headstock was not as rigid as it might have been if shaped in a more brutal, rectangular fashion.

Apron with screw-in controls to engage the power sliding and surfacing feed clutches. For a lathe of this age the micrometer dials are of unusually large diameter

Tailstock with off-set on the sole plate for turning slight tapers.  The unit was locked to the bed not by a loose bolt but by an eccentric cross shaft with a permanently-attached lever at the back. The hollow boss at the front of the casting would originally have held a dipper rod and a supply of white-lead for application to the Morse centre. Note the leadscrew bracket - bolted to the end of the bed and adjustable for perfect alignment.
This section continued on page 2

Lorch advertisement from a 1935 Swedish magazine

Schmidt Page 2   Precision Plain Lathe 1920s/30s   
Precision Plain-turning & Bench Lathes  Lorch Home Page   


E-Mail Tony@lathes.co.uk 
Home    Machine Tool Archive    Machine Tools For Sale & Wanted
Machine Tool Manuals   Machine Tool Catalogues   Belts   Accessories   Books


F.Lorch, Lorch Schmidt, L.S. & Co. Lathes
   
More information about Lorch Lathes is contained in various Manuals,
Parts Lists and well-illustrated Sales & Technical Specification
Brochures and can be purchased on-line here